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A chemical reaction that releases sugars, which are normally linked together in complex chains. In ethanol production, hydrolysis reactions are used to break down the cellulose and hemicellulose in the biomass.

An organic compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. In vehicle emissions, these are usually vapors created from incomplete combustion or from vaporization of liquid gasoline. Emissions of hydrocarbons contribute to ground level ozone.

A vehicle powered by two or more energy sources, one of which is electricity. HEVs may combine the engine and fuel of a conventional vehicle with the batteries and electric motor of an electric vehicle in a single drivetrain.

DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) defines a hazardous material as any item or chemical which, when being transported or moved, is a risk to public safety or the environment.

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